Adaptive maintenance

In the sense of the French Standards Association (AFNOR), this consists in developing a software application when its environment changes, in order to ensure the continuity of the software's operation but without modifying its functionalities.

ADR (Average Daily Rate)

This is the rate for an 8-hour working day (in France).


It refers to any defect, bug, design, production, programming or other error, relating to all or part of the Site; and any incorrect or inconsistent result with the functionalities of the Site while the procedures are being used in accordance with their purpose and the Documentation (provided to the Service Provider). Anomalies are classified into four categories:

  • "Critical anomaly": anomaly requiring action under severe constraint conditions (night intervention, outside working days or hours)
  • "Blocking anomaly": anomaly that makes it impossible to use an essential function of the Software Package normally without finding a workaround solution. (french SYNTEC definition)
  • "Major anomaly": a blocking anomaly that has been bypassed. (french SYNTEC definition)
  • "Minor anomaly" means an anomaly that is neither a blocking anomaly nor a major anomaly. (french SYNTEC definition)

Atomic design

Atomic design makes it possible to set up a nomenclature, to define the architecture and elements that lay the foundations for a fully decomposable and therefore easily modular structure; to work on each part of a page independently while giving overall coherence when these elements are assembled. This type of graphic design is recommended for applications and interface development in object language (PHP, CSS, JS, etc.).

Best practices

Refers to the data currently acquired from science accessible to the professional according to the time, place and economic environment in which the Contract is being performed.

Brand content

Brand Content refers to content produced by a company or brand. This term is generally used within digital marketing strategies, and more broadly with the advent of social networks when brands realized that they needed to offer quality content to meet the growing demands of online users.

Burger Menu

This term appeared with the arrival of mobile media such as smartphones and tablets and the widespread use of so-called "responsive" sites. Indeed, on this type of device, which does not have enough space to immediately display all the headings, access to languages or the user account, it was necessary to create a drop-down menu that can be deployed to give these accesses without interfering with the reading of the site or the visited application. It is its shape composed of three parallel rectangles that has earned it the name of "burger".

Client workstation

A client workstation that consults data or requests services located on the server, for example via the Internet network.

CMS (Content Management System)

This term refers to software used to design, manage and update websites and applications in a dynamic way.

Computer server

Refers to all the hardware, software and links on which the Site is implemented and which make it available for consultation on the Internet.


Refers to creations, designs or works of any nature provided by the Supplier in the context of the performance of the Contract. The Creations include, but are not limited to, the layout of the Site, the graphic charter, photographs, drawings, drawings, texts, source code of the Site, Java applets, databases, forms, the Site itself (as a composite work and as a database) or any other literary work, graphic, musical or audiovisual content incorporated into the Site, as well as other achievements such as specification files, documentation, preparatory work, studies, models, prototypes, specific computer developments, interfaces, settings, diagrams, graphics, plans and quality charter.alité.

Corrective maintenance

Aimed at correcting anomalies and malfunctions in software, resulting from bugs or inappropriate programming. Contracts providing for this type of maintenance generally distinguish between response times depending on whether or not the anomalies encountered are blocking.

Delivery & Acceptance report

Allows you to deliver the reception, with or without reservation (for example, a recipe. At Naes, each project is the subject of 2 minutes (PV):

  • The acceptance report, issued after all functional tests have been carried out
  • The delivery report, issued upon delivery of the finished product (usually in the form of a "production start").

Digital Accessibility Standards

Refers to the accessibility criteria HTML/CSS, FLASH, JAVASCRIPT and graphic and ergonomic.

Digital Accessibility Standards

Refers to the accessibility criteria HTML/CSS, FLASH, JAVASCRIPT and graphic and ergonomic.

DNS (Domain Name Server)

A service that translates a domain name into information of several types associated with it, including the IP addresses of the machine bearing that name. You will encounter this term especially during a domain migration or to a new shared and dedicated hosting.

Evolutive mainteannce

Consists of improving existing functions of an application; developing new functionalities to meet new requirements;


An Internet-type telecommunications network designed to facilitate exchanges between a social organization and its external correspondents.

Factory and user acceptance

This is a project development phase, aimed at formally ensuring that the Product complies with the specifications and which takes place in two main stages:

  • Factory acceptance: carried out at and by the Supplier, before delivery and includes unit tests, validation tests and integration tests,
  • User acceptance testing: carried out by the Customer, generally on his premises and infrastructure, and consists of a functional acceptance which aims to validate the functionalities expressed in the specifications and detailed in the functional specifications; and the technical acceptance which makes it possible to verify that the delivered product is technically compliant throughout the process chain (operability, backup and performance tests).

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

A logical protocol for data transmission over the Internet designed for file downloading between remote machines.

Functional acceptance booklet

Refers to the document that will exhaustively list all the tests that the Client and the Service Provider will have to perform to ensure the conformity of the product with the specifications, functional, technical and graphic specifications that will have been previously validated and until the product is completely corrected and therefore finalized. At the end of this work, a "Acceptance report" is issued. You will encounter this term when designing and building an application or website.

GDPR (General Data Protection Policy)

The GDPR is a European regulation that came into force on 25 May 2018. This law concerns the processing and collection of personal data of all European citizens for all companies, regardless of their nationality.

Graphical interface

The graphical user interface is defined within what is called a "graphical theme". It is this theme that will define all the styles, effects, layouts and formatting of all screens. A graphic theme can be common to several types / user roles connected or not.

GRS (Guaranteed Service Range)

Unless otherwise stipulated, this generally corresponds in France to Monday to Friday, from 9am to 1pm and from 2pm to 6pm where a working day is composed of 8 hours.


A cross-reference system that allows you to move directly from one part of a digital document to another, or from one document to other documents, by clicking on a hypertext link.

HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language)

Standardised computer language (ISO 8879 standard) used to generate documents compatible with the WWW.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

Client-server communication protocol used for data exchange on the web.


We generally speak of iconographic research when during the phase of the creative process, especially graphic or for the editorial phase (webmastering), it will be necessary to study artistic representations and therefore to determine all the illustrations capable of illustrating your profession, universe or product. For a website, it can be photos, illustrations, etc. that must be selected or created and able to highlight the messages conveyed for your brand, your business, your products, etc..

Internet (or Internet network)

A global network of telecommunications resources, server and client computers for the exchange of electronic messages, multimedia information and files.

IP address

A unique numerical address to identify each device (computer or not) connected to the Internet network. It is generally scored with 4 numbers between 0 and 255, separated by dots. For example:

IP (Internet Protocol)

Routing protocol of the Internet network, allowing the routing of data packets (datagrams) from one computer connected to another.


A telecommunications and teleinformatics network intended for the exclusive use of an organization and using the same protocols and techniques as the Internet and accessible only within a company's internal network.

ITR (Intervention Time Guarantee)

Refers to the time or maximum time allowed to the Service Provider to take into account the Client's request, evaluate it and start the intervention if necessary. This term is generally found in our Third Party Application Maintenance (TAM) or shared and dedicated hosting contracts.

Malicious Program

Refers to harmful computer code such as viruses, logic bombs, worms, Trojan horses or any other code or instruction infecting or affecting any program, software, data, file, database, computer or other material or element, damaging, infringing, compromising integrity or confidentiality, disrupting in whole or in part the functioning, diverting or allowing to divert in whole or in part an information system from its intended use.

Mobile application

Application software developed for a mobile electronic device, such as a smartphone or touch tablet; and mostly distributed from download platforms. This software can also be hybrid by having the form of a mobile application encapsulating a web application under Drupal.

Preventive maintenance

Aims to anticipate anomalies before they occur by having a more in-depth view of the application and by ensuring the partial rewriting of the application to compensate for changes in the Framework, CMS or server environment;

Project leader

Refers to the Service Provider in its role and obligations as prime contractor. This includes, in particular, informing, warning and advising the Client, directing, coordinating, performing and controlling the Services entrusted to it, as well as having authority over the parties (including its subcontractors) for whom it is responsible to the Client.

Roles and permissions

In a site with a "front" and "back office" interface, users can be connected or not (anonymous). A connected user will be attached to a role giving him a set of rights and permissions on the data on the screens at his disposal. Some screens will be reserved or refused, some actions (reading, editing, deleting, archiving, etc.) will be allowed or refused.

RTG (Recovery Time Guarantee)

Refers to the time or maximum time allowed to the Service Provider for the Site to be displayed correctly again after the takeover (the intervention). This term is generally used in an Application Maintenance or Shared and Dedicated Hosting contract.

SAV ticket / online support

The customer support ticket is a tool for managing information requests or complaints related to support within a customer relationship centre. A ticket is a customer support request that is numbered and often assigned a processing priority level.


At a time of increasing media and supports, and mobility in general, we will now speak of "screen" rather than "page (web)". A screen is therefore a web page composed of one to several sections, themselves subdivided into data blocks, all of which can be deployed by the appearance/disappearance of data or redirected to new screens. A screen exists mainly in 2 views: in "read" (generally front-office side) and in data "editing" mode (back-office side).

Service provider

An organization that offers its customers the possibility of accessing the Internet, or, more generally, any communication network through, for example, a modem and the telephone or fibre network.

Specification document

Refers to the document expressing the Client's needs regarding the Site and the various associated Internet services requested by the Client.


When browsing a website, you will usually visit the home page and then access an article (news), do a search and get a result page. Thus, we design graphically and technically a single "article" template that will make it possible to control the layout (layout of texts and images, logo, navigation menu, footer, etc.) and generate all the "article" pages of the site. The number of templates is therefore much lower than the number of real pages to which the user will have access

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

It refers to the set of instructions defining how data packets (datagrams) are routed over the Internet. TCP (/IP) also refers to the language that allows computers connected to the Internet network to communicate, including the features that allow data packets to be routed in a given order.

Third Party Application Maintenance (TPMA)

Third-party application maintenance is the maintenance applied to software ("application") and performed by an external service provider in the field of information and communication technologies.

UI Kit (User Interface Kit)

The UI kit is used to present all the graphic elements used to design a screen. This ranges from basic HTML elements such as links, buttons, and titles, to graphic components that form entities and relationships between several elements.

Web (The)

A system on the Internet, geographically and structurally distributed, for publishing and consulting documents using hypertext techniques.

Website or Internet

Refers to all pages and software that automatically generate them, hosted on the same server with the same name and accessible to Internet users by the HTTP or HTTPS address.


English contraction of "What You See Is What You Get", literally meaning "what you see is what you get" in French. This term is widely used for all graphical content administration interfaces (on websites for example) where what is edited will correspond to the result obtained.

Web navigator

In an Internet-like environment, they are software that allows the user to search and consult documents, and to use the hypertext links they contain.

Web page

A coherent set, specially formatted for the web, of digital files in different formats, consisting of texts, still and moving images that can be displayed on the monitor of a computer connected to the Internet network by means of navigation software and a multimedia computer and containing hypertext links to other web pages.